VSANS Instrument Publications

If you have written a paper that reports measurements using this instrument and you do not see it in the list below, or if the paper is listed but the information is incorrect or out of date, please inform Jeff Krzywon and/or Paul Butler.

If you write a paper or give a presentation that reports measurements using the vSANS Instrument, please be sure to:

  1. include an acknowledgement to the NSF, and to NIST if there are no NIST coauthors.
  2. include a reference to the paper describing the vSANS Instrument: "The very small angle neutron scattering instrument at the National Institute of Standards and Technology", Barker J, et al. J Appl. Cryst. 55(2) 271 (2022).

If you reduced and/or analyzed your data using the Igor Macros, please include the reference ""Reduction and Analysis of SANS and USANS Data using Igor Pro", Kline, S. R. J Appl. Cryst. 39(6), 895 (2006).

If you analyzed your data using the SasView application, please follow the guidance outlined on the "SasView publications site.

Please be aware that all papers with NIST coauthors must be reviewed and approved by the Washington Editorial Review Board (WERB). Members of WERB are concerned not only with scientific merit but with three specific matters: measurement uncertainties, the use of SI units, and brand names. For more detailed information please visit WERB and/or speak with your NIST coauthor(s).

2024, 2023, 2022, 2021, 2020, 2019



  1. Methods to maximize detector count rates on small-angle neutron scattering diffractometers at reactor sources: II. Optimizing sample, source and detector sizes
    Barker, J.G., Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment 1059, 168973 (2024)



  1. A review of the shear rheology of carbon black suspensions
    Richards, J.J., Ramos, P.Z., and Liu, Q., Frontiers in Physics 11, (2023)
  2. Advanced polarization analysis capability on the very small-angle neutron scattering instrument at the NIST Center for Neutron Research
    Chen, W.C., Krycka, K.L., Watson, S.M., Barker, J.G., Gaudet, J., Burrall, H., and Borchers, J.A., J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 2481, 012006 (2023)
  3. Evolution of short-range magnetic correlations in ferromagnetic Ni-V alloys
    Bhattarai, S., Adawi, H., Lussier, J.-G., Gebretsadik, A., Dzero, M., Krycka, K.L., and Schroeder, A., Phys. Rev. B 107, 054409 (2023)
  4. Extracting microscopic insight from transient dielectric measurements during large amplitude oscillatory shear
    Cho, N.H., Shi, J., Murphy, R.P., Riley, J.K., Rogers, S.A., and Richards, J.J., Soft Matter (2023)
  5. Facile polymerization in a bicellar template to produce polymer nano-rings
    Liu, C.-H., Cheu, C., Barker, J.G., Yang, L., and Nieh, M.-P., Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 630, 629–637 (2023)
  6. Investigating the cut-off effect of n-alcohols on lipid movement: a biophysical study
    Nguyen, M.H.L., Dziura, D., DiPasquale, M., Castillo, S.R., Kelley, E.G., and Marquardt, D., Soft Matter 19, 5001–5015 (2023)
  7. Liquid piston based on molecular springs for energy storage applications
    Hashemi-Tilehnoee, M., Tsirin, N., Stoudenets, V., Bushuev, Y.G., Chorążewski, M., Li, M., Li, D., Leão, J.B., Bleuel, M., Zajdel, P., Del Barrio, E.P., and Grosu, Y., Journal of Energy Storage 68, 107697 (2023)
  8. Mechanism of structural colors in binary mixtures of nanoparticle-based supraballs
    Heil, C.M., Patil, A., Vanthournout, B., Singla, S., Bleuel, M., Song, J.-J., Hu, Z., Gianneschi, N.C., Shawkey, M.D., Sinha, S.K., Jayaraman, A., and Dhinojwala, A., Sci. Adv. 9, eadf2859 (2023)
  9. Mitocans induce lipid flip-flop and permeabilize the membrane to signal apoptosis
    Castillo, S.R., Nguyen, M.H.L., DiPasquale, M., Kelley, E.G., and Marquardt, D., Biophysical Journal 122, 2353–2366 (2023)
  10. Nanoscale Bending Dynamics in Mixed-Chain Lipid Membranes
    Kelley, E.G., Frewein, M.P.K., Czakkel, O., and Nagao, M., Symmetry 15, 191 (2023)
  11. Neutron adiabaticity and its impact on data analysis, illustrated for polarized GISANS
    Stellhorn, A., Lee, W.-T., Kentzinger, E., Chen, W., Gaudet, J., Krycka, K., and Blackburn, E., EPJ Web Conf. 286, 06002 (2023)
  12. Skyrmion-Excited Spin-Wave Fractal Networks
    Tang, N., Liyanage, W.L.N.C., Montoya, S.A., Patel, S., Quigley, L.J., Grutter, A.J., Fitzsimmons, M.R., Sinha, S., Borchers, J.A., Fullerton, E.E., DeBeer-Schmitt, L., and Gilbert, D.A., Advanced Materials 35, 2300416 (2023)
  13. Spatially confined protein assembly in hierarchical mesoporous metal-organic framework
    Wang, X., He, L., Sumner, J., Qian, S., Zhang, Q., O’Neill, H., Mao, Y., Chen, C., Al-Enizi, A.M., Nafady, A., and Ma, S., Nat Commun 14, 973 (2023)
  14. Testing orientational closure approximations in dilute and non-dilute suspensions with Rheo-SANS
    Corona, P.T., Dai, K., Helgeson, M.E., and Leal, L.G., Journal of Non-newtonian Fluid Mechanics 315, 105014 (2023)
  15. Thermodynamic Interactions in Polydiene/Polyolefin Blends Containing Diverse Polydiene and Polyolefin Units
    Qiu, J., Chen, X., Le, A.N., López-Barrón, C.R., Rohde, B.J., White, R.P., Lipson, J.E.G., Krishnamoorti, R., and Robertson, M.L., Macromolecules 56, 2286–2297 (2023)
  16. Three-dimensional structure of hybrid magnetic skyrmions determined by neutron scattering
    Liyanage, W.L.N.C., Tang, N., Quigley, L., Borchers, J.A., Grutter, A.J., Maranville, B.B., Sinha, S.K., Reyren, N., Montoya, S.A., Fullerton, E.E., DeBeer-Schmitt, L., and Gilbert, D.A., Phys. Rev. B 107, 184412 (2023)



  1. A round-robin approach provides a detailed assessment of biomolecular small-angle scattering data reproducibility and yields consensus curves for benchmarking
    Trewhella, J., Vachette, P., Bierma, J., Blanchet, C., Brookes, E., Chakravarthy, S., Chatzimagas, L., Cleveland, T.E., Cowieson, N., Crossett, B., Duff, A.P., Franke, D., Gabel, F., Gillilan, R.E., Graewert, M., Grishaev, A., Guss, J.M., Hammel, M., Hopkins, J., Huang, Q., Hub, J.S., Hura, G.L., Irving, T.C., Jeffries, C.M., Jeong, C., Kirby, N., Krueger, S., Martel, A., Matsui, T., Li, N., Pérez, J., Porcar, L., Prangé, T., Rajkovic, I., Rocco, M., Rosenberg, D.J., Ryan, T.M., Seifert, S., Sekiguchi, H., Svergun, D., Teixeira, S., Thureau, A., Weiss, T.M., Whitten, A.E., Wood, K., and Zuo, X., Acta Cryst D 78, 1315–1336 (2022)
  2. Aggregation Kinetics of Polysorbate 80/m-Cresol Solutions: A Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Study
    Gilbert, P.H., Zhang, Z., Qian, K.K., Allen, D.P., Ford, R., Wagner, N.J., and Liu, Y., Mol. Pharmaceutics 19, 862–875 (2022)
  3. Aqueous Assembly and Hydrogel Rheology of Sustainable Glyoxylate-Based Copolymers
    Yin, X., Hewitt, D.R.O., Zheng, B., Yu, X., Carr, A.J., Grubbs, R.B., and Bhatia, S.R., ACS Appl. Polym. Mater. 4, 5493–5500 (2022)
  4. Colloid-like solution behavior of computationally designed coiled coil bundlemers
    Sinha, N.J., Guo, R., Misra, R., Fagan, J., Faraone, A., Kloxin, C.J., Saven, J.G., Jensen, G.V., and Pochan, D.J., Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 606, 1974–1982 (2022)
  5. Computational Design of Homotetrameric Peptide Bundle Variants Spanning a Wide Range of Charge States
    Guo, R., Sinha, N.J., Misra, R., Tang, Y., Langenstein, M., Kim, K., Fagan, J.A., Kloxin, C.J., Jensen, G., Pochan, D.J., and Saven, J.G., Biomacromolecules 23, 1652–1661 (2022)
  6. Computational Reverse-Engineering Analysis for Scattering Experiments (CREASE) with Machine Learning Enhancement to Determine Structure of Nanoparticle Mixtures and Solutions
    Heil, C.M., Patil, A., Dhinojwala, A., and Jayaraman, A., ACS Cent. Sci. 8, 996–1007 (2022)
  7. Controlling the Morphology of PEDOT:PSS Blend Films with Pre-Deposition Solution Composition and Deposition Technique
    Heroux, L., Moncada, J., and Dadmun, M., ACS Appl. Polym. Mater. 4, 36–43 (2022)
  8. Extraneous Scattering Background in SANS Instruments
    Barker, J.G., Cook, J.C., Chabot, J.P., Kline, S.R., Zhang, Z., and Gagnon, C.V., Neutron News 0, 1–2 (2022)
  9. Interactions, Diffusion, and Membrane Fluctuations in Concentrated Unilamellar Lipid Vesicle Solutions
    Kelley, E.G., Blick, E.E., Prabhu, V.M., Butler, P.D., and Nagao, M., Frontiers in Physics 10, (2022)
  10. Investigating the Kinetics and Structure of Network Formation in Ultraviolet-Photopolymerizable Starch Nanogel Network Hydrogels via Very Small-Angle Neutron Scattering and Small-Amplitude Oscillatory Shear Rheology
    Majcher, M.J., Himbert, S., Vito, F., Campea, M.A., Dave, R., Vetergaard Jensen, G., Rheinstadter, M.C., Smeets, N.M.B., and Hoare, T., Macromolecules 55, 7303–7317 (2022)
  11. Magnetic correlations of iron oxide nanoparticles as probed by polarized SANS in stretched magnetic nanoparticle–elastomer composites
    Oberdick, S.D., Borchers, J.A., and Krycka, K.L., Appl. Phys. Lett. 120, 052401 (2022)
  12. Microstructure of continuous shear thickening colloidal suspensions determined by rheo-VSANS and rheo-USANS
    Lee, Y.-F., Luo, Y., Bai, T., Brown, S.C., and Wagner, N.J., Soft Matter (2022)
  13. Structural Color Production in Melanin-Based Disordered Colloidal Nanoparticle Assemblies in Spherical Confinement
    Patil, A., Heil, C.M., Vanthournout, B., Bleuel, M., Singla, S., Hu, Z., Gianneschi, N.C., Shawkey, M.D., Sinha, S.K., Jayaraman, A., and Dhinojwala, A., Advanced Optical Materials 10, 2102162 (2022)
  14. Structure-property relationships and state behavior of alkali-activated aluminosilicate gels
    Mills, J., Mondal, P., and Wagner, N., Cement and Concrete Research 151, 106618 (2022)
  15. The very small angle neutron scattering instrument at the National Institute of Standards and Technology
    Barker, J., Moyer, J., Kline, S., Jensen, G., Cook, J., Gagnon, C., Kelley, E., Chabot, J.P., Maliszewskyj, N., Parikh, C., Chen, W., Murphy, R.P., and Glinka, C., J Appl Cryst 55, (2022)
  16. Transformation of Lipid Vesicles into Micelles by Adding Nonionic Surfactants: Elucidating the Structural Pathway and the Intermediate Structures
    Mkam Tsengam, I.K., Omarova, M., Kelley, E.G., McCormick, A., Bothun, G.D., Raghavan, S.R., and John, V.T., J. Phys. Chem. B 126, 2208–2216 (2022)
  17. Turning Molecular Springs into Nano-Shock Absorbers: The Effect of Macroscopic Morphology and Crystal Size on the Dynamic Hysteresis of Water Intrusion–Extrusion into-from Hydrophobic Nanopores
    Zajdel, P., Madden, D.G., Babu, R., Tortora, M., Mirani, D., Tsyrin, N.N., Bartolomé, L., Amayuelas, E., Fairen-Jimenez, D., Lowe, A.R., Chorążewski, M., Leao, J.B., Brown, C.M., Bleuel, M., Stoudenets, V., Casciola, C.M., Echeverría, M., Bonilla, F., Grancini, G., Meloni, S., and Grosu, Y., ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 14, 26699–26713 (2022)
  18. Vitamin E Does Not Disturb Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Lipid Domains
    DiPasquale, M., Nguyen, M.H.L., Castillo, S.R., Dib, I.J., Kelley, E.G., and Marquardt, D., Biochemistry 61, 2366–2376 (2022)
  19. α-SAS: an integrative approach for structural modeling of biological macromolecules in solution
    Anitas, E.M., Acta Cryst D 78, 1046–1063 (2022)
  20. α-Synuclein Interaction with Lipid Bilayer Discs
    Dubackic, M., Liu, Y., Kelley, E.G., Hetherington, C., Haertlein, M., Devos, J.M., Linse, S., Sparr, E., and Olsson, U., Langmuir 38, 10216–10224 (2022)



  1. Bayesian estimations of orientation distribution functions from small-angle scattering enable direct prediction of mechanical stress in anisotropic materials
    Corona, P.T., Silmore, K.S., Adkins, R., Lang, C., Lettinga, M.P., Swan, J.W., Leal, L.G., and Helgeson, M.E., Phys. Rev. Materials 5, 065601 (2021)
  2. Blend Morphology in Polythiophene–Polystyrene Composites from Neutron and X-ray Scattering
    Wolf, C.M., Guio, L., Scheiwiller, S.C., O’Hara, R.P., Luscombe, C.K., and Pozzo, L.D., Macromolecules 54, 2960 (2021)
  3. Collective dynamics in lipid membranes containing transmembrane peptides
    G. Kelley, E., D. Butler, P., and Nagao, M., Soft Matter 17, 5671–5681 (2021)
  4. Compact Thermal Actuation by Water and Flexible Hydrophobic Nanopore
    Chorążewski, M., Zajdel, P., Feng, T., Luo, D., Lowe, A.R., Brown, C.M., Leão, J.B., Li, M., Bleuel, M., Jensen, G., Li, D., Faik, A., and Grosu, Y., ACS Nano 15, 9048–9056 (2021)
  5. Complex by design: Hydrotrope-induced micellar growth in deep eutectic solvents
    Sanchez-Fernandez, A., Leung, A.E., Kelley, E.G., and Jackson, A.J., Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 581, 292–298 (2021)
  6. Direct measurements of the microstructural origin of shear-thinning in carbon black suspensions
    Hipp, J.B., Richards, J.J., and Wagner, N.J., Journal of Rheology 65, 145–157 (2021)
  7. Dual-Stimuli Responsive Single-Chain Polymer Folding via Intrachain Complexation of Tetramethoxyazobenzene and β-Cyclodextrin
    Lee, D.C., Guye, K.N., Paranji, R.K., Lachowski, K., Pozzo, L.D., Ginger, D.S., and Pun, S.H., Langmuir 37, 10126–10134 (2021)
  8. Giant Negative Compressibility by Liquid Intrusion into Superhydrophobic Flexible Nanoporous Frameworks
    Tortora, M., Zajdel, P., Lowe, A.R., Chorążewski, M., Leão, J.B., Jensen, G.V., Bleuel, M., Giacomello, A., Casciola, C.M., Meloni, S., and Grosu, Y., Nano Lett. 21, 2848–2853 (2021)
  9. Inflation Negative Compressibility during Intrusion–Extrusion of a Non-Wetting Liquid into a Flexible Nanoporous Framework
    Zajdel, P., Chorążewski, M., Leão, J.B., Jensen, G.V., Bleuel, M., Zhang, H.-F., Feng, T., Luo, D., Li, M., Lowe, A.R., Geppert-Rybczynska, M., Li, D., and Grosu, Y., J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 12, 4951–4957 (2021)
  10. Introduction to Neutron Scattering as a Tool for Characterizing Magnetic Materials
    Dennis, C.L., in Magnetic Measurement Techniques for Materials Characterization, edited by V. Franco and B. Dodrill (Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2021), pp. 301–320
  11. Measuring the Time-evolution of Nanoscale Materials with Stopped-flow and Small-angle Neutron Scattering
    Kelley, E.G., Nguyen, M.H.L., Marquardt, D., Maranville, B.B., and Murphy, R.P., Jove e62873 (2021)
  12. Mitigating background caused by extraneous scattering in small-angle neutron scattering instrument design
    Barker, J.G., Cook, J.C., Chabot, J.P., Kline, S.R., Zhang, Z., and Gagnon, C., J Appl Cryst 54, (2021)
  13. Nanocomplex made up of antimicrobial metallo-supramolecules and model biomembranes – characterization and enhanced fluorescence
    Liu, C.-H., Wang, H., Yang, L., Liu, Y., Li, X., and Nieh, M.-P., Nanoscale 13, 14973–14979 (2021)
  14. Preservative Induced Polysorbate 80 Micelle Aggregation
    Gilbert, P.H., Zhang, Z., Qian, K.K., Allen, D.P., Wagner, N.J., and Liu, Y., Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 110, 2395–2404 (2021)
  15. Relating chemical composition, structure, and rheology in alkali-activated aluminosilicate gels
    Mills, J.N., Wagner, N.J., and Mondal, P., J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 104, 572–583 (2021)
  16. Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Characterization of SrCl2–ENG Composites for Thermochemical Heat Storage
    Karabanova, A., Knudsen, K.D., Berdiyeva, P., Cavalcanti, L.P., Liu, Y., van der Pal, M., Deledda, S., and Blanchard, D., ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 13, 34213–34226 (2021)
  17. Time-resolved SANS reveals pore-forming peptides cause rapid lipid reorganization
    Nguyen, M.H.L., DiPasquale, M., Rickeard, B.W., Yip, C.G., Greco, K.N., Kelley, E.G., and Marquardt, D., New J. Chem. 45, 447–456 (2021)
  18. Tunable thermo-reversible bicontinuous nanoparticle gel driven by the binary solvent segregation
    Xi, Y., Lankone, R.S., Sung, L.-P., and Liu, Y., Nat Commun 12, 910 (2021)
  19. Tuning Net Charge in Aliphatic Polycarbonates Alters Solubility and Protein Complexation Behavior
    Posey, N.D., Ma, Y., Lueckheide, M., Danischewski, J., Fagan, J.A., and Prabhu, V.M., ACS Omega 6, 22589–22602 (2021)
  20. USANS and SANS investigations on the coagulation of commercial bovine milk: Microstructures induced by calf and fungal rennet
    Callaghan-Patrachar, N., Peyronel, F., Pink, D.A., Marangoni, A.G., and Adams, C.P., Food Hydrocolloids 116, 106622 (2021)
  21. Unraveling high-pressure gas storage mechanisms in shale nanopores through SANS
    Zhang, R., Liu, S., Fan, L., Blach, T.P., and Sang, G., Environ. Sci.: Nano 8, 2706–2717 (2021)



  1. Capillary RheoSANS: measuring the rheology and nanostructure of complex fluids at high shear rates
    P. Murphy, R., W. Riedel, Z., A. Nakatani, M., F. Salipante, P., S. Weston, J., D. Hudson, S., and M. Weigandt, K., Soft Matter 16, 6285–6293 (2020)
  2. Cobalt ferrite nanoparticle intercalated carbon nanotubes for a nanomagnetic ultrasensitive sensor of Cr-VI in water
    Mekuria, T., Khalid, S., Krycka, K., Bleuel, M., Verma, H., Hong, H., Karna, S.P., and Seifu, D., AIP Advances 10, 065134 (2020)
  3. Color, structure, and rheology of a diblock bottlebrush copolymer solution
    A. Wade, M., Walsh, D., Ching-Wei Lee, J., Kelley, E., Weigandt, K., Guironnet, D., and A. Rogers, S., Soft Matter 16, 4919–4931 (2020)
  4. Emulsions Stabilized by Inorganic Nanoclays and Surfactants: Stability, Viscosity, and Implications for Applications
    Zheng, B., Zheng, B., Carr, A.J., Yu, X., Julian McClements, D., and Bhatia, S.R., Inorganica Chimica Acta 508, 119566 (2020)
  5. Influence of External NaCl Salt on Membrane Rigidity of Neutral DOPC Vesicles
    De Mel, J.U., Gupta, S., Perera, R.M., Ngo, L., Zolnierczuk, P., Bleuel, M., Pingali, S.V., and Schneider, G.J., Langmuir 36, 9356–9367 (2020)
  6. Intimately bonded 2D materials and responsive polymer brushes for adaptive nanocomposites
    Liu, S., Kasbe, P.S., Yang, M., Shen, N., Duan, L., Mao, Y., and Xu, W., Polymer 210, 123033 (2020)
  7. Molecular engineering of thixotropic, sprayable fluids with yield stress using associating polysaccharides
    Lin, Y.-J., Horner, J., Illie, B., Lynch, M.L., Furst, E.M., and Wagner, N.J., Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 580, 264–274 (2020)
  8. The antioxidant vitamin E as a membrane raft modulator: Tocopherols do not abolish lipid domains
    DiPasquale, M., Nguyen, M.H.L., Rickeard, B.W., Cesca, N., Tannous, C., Castillo, S.R., Katsaras, J., Kelley, E.G., Heberle, F.A., and Marquardt, D., Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Biomembranes 1862, 183189 (2020)
  9. Threading–Unthreading Transition of Linear-Ring Polymer Blends in Extensional Flow
    Borger, A., Wang, W., O’Connor, T.C., Ge, T., Grest, G.S., Jensen, G.V., Ahn, J., Chang, T., Hassager, O., Mortensen, K., Vlassopoulos, D., and Huang, Q., ACS Macro Lett. 9, 1452–1457 (2020)



  1. Contrast-Variation Time-Resolved Small-Angle Neutron Scattering Analysis of Oil-Exchange Kinetics Between Oil-in-Water Emulsions Stabilized by Anionic Surfactants
    Lee, Y.-T. and Pozzo, L.D., Langmuir 35, 15192–15203 (2019)
  2. Effect of Flexibility and Nanotriboelectrification on the Dynamic Reversibility of Water Intrusion into Nanopores: Pressure-Transmitting Fluid with Frequency-Dependent Dissipation Capability
    Lowe, A., Tsyrin, N., Chorążewski, M., Zajdel, P., Mierzwa, M., Leão, J.B., Bleuel, M., Feng, T., Luo, D., Li, M., Li, D., Stoudenets, V., Pawlus, S., Faik, A., and Grosu, Y., ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 11, 40842–40849 (2019)
  3. Methanol Accelerates DMPC Flip-Flop and Transfer: A SANS Study on Lipid Dynamics
    Nguyen, M.H.L., DiPasquale, M., Rickeard, B.W., Stanley, C.B., Kelley, E.G., and Marquardt, D., Biophysical Journal 116, 755–759 (2019)
  4. Realization of ordered magnetic skyrmions in thin films at ambient conditions
    Desautels, R.D., DeBeer-Schmitt, L., Montoya, S.A., Borchers, J.A., Je, S.-G., Tang, N., Im, M.-Y., Fitzsimmons, M.R., Fullerton, E.E., and Gilbert, D.A., Phys. Rev. Materials 3, 104406 (2019)
  5. Structure-property relationships of sheared carbon black suspensions determined by simultaneous rheological and neutron scattering measurements
    Hipp, J.B., Richards, J.J., and Wagner, N.J., Journal of Rheology 63, 423–436 (2019)